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Formula List
AI # 3 Capsule
Allicin Capsule
Artemisia Capsule
Artemisia 2 Capsule
(Double Potency)
BM Capsule
ArthralEZ
Capillaris Combination
Circulation P Capsule
Copmine Formula
Coptis Capsule
Cordyceps Capsule
DH-Artemisinin Capsule
Gall Formula 1
Gineseng and Atractylodes Formula
Glycyrrhizin Capsule
GL2
Hepa Formula 1A
Hepa Formula 2
HerbLipido
HerbSom Capsule
HerbZac Capsule
HH Tablets
HH 2 Capsule
(Double Potency)
Ligustrin Capsule
Milk Thistle Plus
MVM Formula
Olivessence Capsule
Puerarin Capsule
R-5081 Capsule
R-OBG Capsule
Schisandra Plus
Sedin
TGP formula
Yunan Baiyao Capsule
 
Artemisia Capsule
Recommended Daily Dose:
1 Capsules, 3 times a Day

(Individual Dosage May Vary. Please Consult Health Care Professional)


 

A.   Original Herb:

Main herb: Artemiciae apiacea Hance or Artemisiae annua L. and adjunctive herbs: Astragalus membranaceus and Codonopsis pilosula. This article discusses the pharmacological actions of the main herb.[ 1]

B.   Chemical Composition: Genetic name: Artesunate or in Chinese, Qinghaosu.[2]
Chemical name: 3,13 – Epoxy – 12H – pyrano [4,3-j] –1,2-benzodioxepin –10(3H) one, cctahydro –3,6,9 –trimethyl -, [3R –(3a,5ab, 6b, 8ab, 9a, 12b, 12aR)]-.
Molecular formula: C15H22O5
Molecular weight: 282.14 [3,4]

 C.   Pharmacology:

1.        Anti Malaria effects

Pharmacological studies found artesunate has strong anti-malaria action.  Artesunate was lethal to the endoerythrocytic plasmodium.  Symptomatic control and negative plasmodium examination were achieved rapidly by using artesunate compared with chloroquine.  Resistance of plasmodia to artesunate developed at a much slower rate than to chloroquine.  Artesunate showed positive effects in chloroquine-resistant infection.  The draw back was its high relapse rate.  The new improvement in the molecular structure of the active ingredient of this herbal remedy has reduced the relapse rate. Especially when it was used together with Astragalus membranaceus and Codonopsis pilosula. [4,5,6,7,8,9] Pharmacological studies also found that paraaminobezoic acid or folic acid did not antagonize its anti-malarial action. There was no synergistic action between this agent and sulfamethozine.  Therefore, its anti-malarial action was probably unrelated to folic acid metabolism.  It was shown that when artesunate was used with trimethoprim in rat malaria, its anti-malarial action was enhanced and the relapse rate following discontinuation of the agent was also decreased.  In vitro culture indicated that artesunate has a direct lethal effect on the plasmodium.  Under the electron microscope, it was found that the site of its action was on the membranous structures of the endoerythrocytic asexual plasmodium, primarily on the food vacuole membrane, surface membrane, and mitochondrial membrane, and secondarily on the nuclear membrane and endoplasmic reticulum.   It also affected the intra-nuclear chromosomes.  The alteration of the food vacuole membrane interrupted the nutrition intake of the plasmodium.  Following the deprivation of amino acids, auto-phagocytic vacuoles were found which were continually excreted out of the protozoa, resulting in the loss of large amounts of cytoplasm, destruction of the internal structure, and death of the parasites. [ 10,11,12,13,14]

 

2.        Anti Babesia effects

The use of artesunate in treating Babesiosis is based on the similarity between the babesia and malaria organisms. Both plasmodium and Babesia are endoerythrocytic protozoa and show a similar life cycle. Based on clinical findings, artesunate was effective in the treatment of babesia. The treatment course is about 40 to 80 days.

  1. Other pharmacological effects:

a.    Anti-schistosomiasis effects: It has fast schistosomia-killing effects, especially strong to          

the female schistosomia. [15,16]

b.   Cardiovascular effects: It can reduce the heart beat rate; lower the blood pressure, and anti-arrhythmia. [17] 

c.   Immune regulatory effects: In animal models with mice, after taking this substance, serum interferon level increases and maintains at the elevated level for 24 hours. The increase of the phagocytic activity started after 24 hours of administration and this elevated phagocytic activity maintains for 72 hours. It increases the percentage of phagocytosis of phagocytes up to 53.1% and increase phagocytic index up to 1.91. The elevated phagocytic activity may be a result of the effects of interferon. It can reduce serum IgG in sensitized animals and increase the weight of the spleen. It has obvious suppressive effects on humoral and cellular immunity. In mice, its administration can reduce the amount of antibody production cells and also can suppress the delayed allergic reactions. It can also suppress the IL-2 production in the mice spleen. These effects explain its usage in treating systematic lupus erythematosus. [18,19,20,21,22]

 

  1. Pharmacokinetics: Studies found that it can be rapid absorbed, widely distributed, rapidly metabolized, and excreted.  There was no accumulation after a long term taking this substance. [ 23,24,25,26,27]
     
  2. Toxicity: Its LD50 in injective version, for intramuscular, intraceliac, and subcutenous injection were 2,800, 1,558, and 9,000 mg/kg respectively. Its therapeutic index was 36.80 in comparison chloroquine was 28.8, so it is safer than chloroquine.  The herb, Qinghao and its essence, artesunate are very low in toxicity. [17,28,29]

 

D.      Clinical Applications:

1)       Malaria

Clinically, while used for treating malaria, a 100% cure rate was achieved in 485 cases of tertian malaria and 105 cases of subtertian malaria.  These two groups were all treated with the tablet made from the dilute alcohol extract of the herb at a total dose of 72 or 86.4 grams of crude herb in divided doses spread over 3 days.  In comparison with chloroquine, the herbal preparations and artesunate had fast-acting antipyretic and anti-plamodial actions.  It can also be used for treating systematic lupus erythematosus. [30]

2)       Babesiosis,

Treatment course is about 40 to 80 days. Babesiosis test marker usually turns negative after one course treatment.

E.   Package:

Each Capsule contains 350mg (contains 33mg artesunate) of the extract of Artemisiae annua L.  Herba, Astragalus membranaceus and Codonopsis pilosula.

     Dose: take one capsule, three times a day.

 

 

 

References:

1.     The Great Dictionary of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai Science and Technology Press, 1988, p.1228-1229

1.        Jie et al., Pharmacological  Action and Application of Available Composition of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Helongjian Science and Technology Press, 1994, p. 42-45

2.         Qinghao Research Group, Science Bulletin (Chinese), 1977:22(3):142

3.         Qinghao Research Group, Science Bulletin (Chinese), 1979:14(2):49

4.        UNDP/World Bank/WHO. TDR/CHEMALSWG (4)/(QHS)/ 1981L3)  

5.        Jian QB et al., The lancet, 1982, 8(7):285

6.        Guan WJ et al., Academe Journal of Second Military Medical University, 1986, 7(2):123

7.        Xuan WJ et al., Academic Journal of Materia Medica (Chinese),1990, 25(3):220

8.        Yie B et al., Academic Journal of Materia Medica (Chinese),1991, 26(3):228

9.        Eillis et al., Ann Troo Med Parasito, 1985, 79(4):367

10.     Jaing et al., Foreign Medicine, Chinese Medicine, 1986, 8(2):54

11.     Li et al., Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1983, 77(4):522

12.     Qinghao Research Group, Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1982, 2(1):17

13.     Yie ZG et al., Journal of Parasite and Parasitic Diseases, 1986, 4(4):260

14.     Chen DJ et al., Chinese Medical Journal, 1980,60(7):422

15.     Lu WJ et al., Academic Journal of Materia Medica (Chinese),1981, 16(8):516

16.     Li S et al., Journal of New Chinese Medicine, 1979 (6):51

17.     Lin BY et al., Academic Journal of Materia Medica (Chinese),1985, 20(3):211

18.     Shen M et al., Chinese Science B, 1983, 10:928

19.     Zhang D et al., Chinese Pharmacology Bulletin, 1989, 5(1):37

20.     Chen H et al., Academic Journal of Penbu Medical College, 1988, 13(3):195

21.     Qien RS et al., Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1981, 6:63

22.     Zhao KC et al., Academic Journal of Materia Medica (Chinese),1988, 21(10):736

23.     Chen S et al., Journal of New Chinese Medicine, 1980 (1):37

24.     Zhu DY et al., Academic Journal of Materia Medica (Chinese),1980, 15(8):509

25.     Zhu DY et al., Chinese Academic Journal of Pharmacology, 1983, 4(3):194

26.     Research Group on Qinghaosu and Its Derivatives as Antimalarials, J Trad Chin Med, 1982,2(1):25

27.     Ning DX et al., Chin J of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1987, 1(2):135

28.     Institute of Pharmacology of Chinese Academe of TCM, Journal of New Medicine, 1979, (1):23

29.     Fan TT et al., Journal of New Chinese Medicine, 1988, 20(1):35

30.     Wang GY et al., Middle Rank Medical Journal 1981,(7):39

31.     Zhuang GK et al., Journal of New Chinese Medicine, 1979 (6):39