Recommended Daily Dose:
1 Capsules, 3 times a Day
May Vary. Please Consult Health Care Professional)
herb: Artemiciae apiacea Hance
or Artemisiae annua L. and adjunctive herbs:
Astragalus membranaceus and Codonopsis
pilosula. This article discusses the pharmacological actions of the
main herb.[ 1]
Chemical Composition: Genetic name: Artesunate or in Chinese,
name: 3,13 – Epoxy – 12H – pyrano [4,3-j] –1,2-benzodioxepin
–10(3H) one, cctahydro –3,6,9 –trimethyl -, [3R –(3a,5ab,
weight: 282.14 [3,4]
Anti Malaria effects
studies found artesunate has strong anti-malaria action.
Artesunate was lethal to the endoerythrocytic
control and negative plasmodium
examination were achieved rapidly by using artesunate compared with
chloroquine. Resistance of plasmodia to artesunate developed at a much slower rate than to
showed positive effects in chloroquine-resistant infection.
The draw back was its high relapse rate.
The new improvement in the molecular structure of the active
ingredient of this herbal remedy has reduced the relapse rate. Especially
when it was used together with Astragalus
membranaceus and Codonopsis
pilosula. [4,5,6,7,8,9] Pharmacological studies also found that
paraaminobezoic acid or folic acid did not antagonize its anti-malarial
action. There was no synergistic action between this agent and
its anti-malarial action was probably unrelated to folic acid metabolism.
It was shown that when artesunate was used with trimethoprim in rat
malaria, its anti-malarial action was enhanced and the relapse rate
following discontinuation of the agent was also decreased.
In vitro culture indicated that artesunate has a direct lethal
effect on the plasmodium.
Under the electron microscope, it was found that the site of its
action was on the membranous structures of the endoerythrocytic asexual plasmodium,
primarily on the food vacuole membrane, surface membrane, and
mitochondrial membrane, and secondarily on the nuclear membrane and
endoplasmic reticulum. It
also affected the intra-nuclear chromosomes.
The alteration of the food vacuole membrane interrupted the
nutrition intake of the plasmodium. Following the deprivation of amino acids, auto-phagocytic
vacuoles were found which were continually excreted out of the protozoa,
resulting in the loss of large amounts of cytoplasm, destruction of the
internal structure, and death of the parasites. [ 10,11,12,13,14]
Anti Babesia effects
use of artesunate in treating Babesiosis is based on the similarity
between the babesia and malaria organisms.
Both plasmodium and Babesia are
endoerythrocytic protozoa and show a similar life cycle. Based on clinical
findings, artesunate was effective in the treatment of babesia. The
treatment course is about 40 to 80 days.
Anti-schistosomiasis effects: It has fast schistosomia-killing
effects, especially strong to
the female schistosomia. [15,16]
b. Cardiovascular effects: It can reduce the heart beat rate; lower
the blood pressure, and anti-arrhythmia. 
c. Immune regulatory effects: In animal models with mice, after taking
this substance, serum interferon level increases and maintains at the
elevated level for 24 hours. The increase of the phagocytic activity
started after 24 hours of administration and this elevated phagocytic
activity maintains for 72 hours. It increases the percentage of
phagocytosis of phagocytes up to 53.1% and increase phagocytic index up to
1.91. The elevated phagocytic activity may be a result of the effects of
interferon. It can reduce serum IgG in sensitized animals and increase the
weight of the spleen. It has obvious suppressive effects on humoral and
cellular immunity. In mice, its administration can reduce the amount of
antibody production cells and also can suppress the delayed allergic
reactions. It can also suppress the IL-2 production in the mice spleen.
These effects explain its usage in treating systematic lupus erythematosus.
Studies found that it can be rapid absorbed, widely distributed,
rapidly metabolized, and excreted.
There was no accumulation after a long term taking this
substance. [ 23,24,25,26,27]
Its LD50 in injective version, for intramuscular,
intraceliac, and subcutenous injection were 2,800, 1,558, and 9,000
mg/kg respectively. Its therapeutic index was 36.80 in comparison
chloroquine was 28.8, so it is safer than chloroquine.
The herb, Qinghao and its essence, artesunate are very low in
while used for treating malaria, a 100% cure rate was achieved in 485
cases of tertian malaria and 105 cases of subtertian malaria. These two groups were all treated with the tablet made from
the dilute alcohol extract of the herb at a total dose of 72 or 86.4 grams
of crude herb in divided doses spread over 3 days.
In comparison with chloroquine, the herbal preparations and
artesunate had fast-acting antipyretic and anti-plamodial actions.
It can also be used for treating systematic lupus erythematosus.
Treatment course is about 40 to 80 days. Babesiosis
test marker usually turns negative after one course
Each Capsule contains 350mg (contains 33mg artesunate) of the
extract of Artemisiae annua L.
Herba, Astragalus membranaceus and Codonopsis pilosula.
take one capsule, three times a day.
The Great Dictionary of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai Science
and Technology Press, 1988, p.1228-1229
Jie et al., Pharmacological Action
and Application of Available Composition of Traditional Chinese Medicine,
Helongjian Science and Technology Press, 1994, p. 42-45
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