Artemisia 2 Capsule
Recommended Daily Dose:
1 Capsules, 3 times a Day
May Vary. Please Consult Health Care Professional)
been used as the 1st line anti-malaria remedy recommended by
the World Health Organization. Its application has been expanded to
treat the malaria-like protozoa infections babesiosis. In addition to
its anti-malaira and anti-protozoa actions, DHA can also be used as a
supportive treatment agent in autoimmune and cancer related disorders.
Traditional Chinese medicinal herb Qing Hao (Herba Artemisiae
annuae), a sweet wormwood plant.
2. Chemical Composition:
DHA is a molecularly modified derivertive of artemisinin. It is
extracted and purified from
Herba Artemisiae annuae.
It is a sesquiterpene
lactone with the molecular formula C15H24O5
and molecular weight: 284.3.
DHA is the metabolite of
and its derivertives include artemisinin, artemether, artesunate, and
DHA in the body. It is the pharmacodynamic molecule equivalent of these
possesses strong anti-malarial actions and is lethal to the malaria
protozoa Endoerythrocytic plasmodium. Compared to chloroquine,
symptomatic control and negative plasmodium conversion were
achieved more rapidly using DHA. In addition, compared to chloroquine,
resistance to DHA by plasmodia developed at a much slower rate.
It is also effective against chloroquine-resistant strains. Alteration
of the molecular structure of artemisinin to DHA has reduced relapse
rates. (UNDP 1984, Jian QB et al. 1982, Guan WJ et al., 1986, Xuan WJ et
al., 1990, Yie B et al., 1991, Eillis et al., 1985,
Smithuis F. et al.,2006).
Under the electron microscope, it was discovered that DHA actions mainly
affect the membranous structures of the intra erythrocyte asexual
plasmodium, primarily on the food vacuole membrane, surface
membrane, and mitochondrial membrane. Secondarily, its mechanisms also
affect the nuclear membrane, endoplasmic reticulum and intra-nuclear
chromosomes. The alteration of the food vacuole membrane interrupts the
nutrition intake abilities of the plasmodium. Following the
deprivation of amino acids, auto-phagocytic vacuoles were found to
continually excrete out of the protozoa, resulting in the loss of large
amounts of cytoplasm leading to the destruction of the internal
structures and cell death. (Jaing et al., 1986, Li et al., 1983, Qinghao
Research Group, 1982, Yie ZG et al., 1986, Chen DJ et al., 1980).
The application of
DHA in treating babesiosis was based on the similarities between
babesiosis and malaria. Conventional medicine also uses anti-malarial
therapies to treat babesiosis. From clinical observations, it was found
that this substance was able to trigger the Herxheimer’s reaction and
release typical babesiosis symptoms. Moreover, compared with
conventional treatment, it has shown fewer side effects and requires a
shorter treatment course.
can induce cancer cell death through apoptosis in a dose- and
caspase-3-dependent mitochondrial death pathway observed in ASTC-a-1
cells of lung cancer. It has been studied as a possible anticancer drug
in the clinical treatment of lung adenocarcinoma (Lu, YY et al., 2009).
DHA at a concentration of 5-25 μM inhibited the growth and
induced apoptosis of C6 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent
manner; however, it was much less toxic to rat primary astrocytes. In
this concentration range, it also increased the generation of reactive
oxygen species in C6 cells. These effects of DHA were enhanced by
ferrous ions and reduced by the iron chelator deferoxamine (Huang XJ et
DHA also demonstrated
the ability to promote cancer cells to enter apoptosis. Singh NP et al.
reported that in cancer cell line
cells cultured in a medium containing 200 microM of DHA, it was found
that DHA treatment significantly decreased cell counts and increased the
proportion of apoptosis compared to the control groups. No necrotic
cells were observed. From this study, it was concluded that the rapid
induction of apoptosis in cancer cells after treatment with DHA
indicates that it may be an effective anti-cancer agent (Singh Np et
al., 2004, Schaller, 2006).
derivative of artemisinin, deoxyartemisitene, has been tested to have
suppressive actions on 14 different types of human cancer cell lines.
(Galal AM, et al., 2002) The following cancers were shown to have the
highest sensitivity to the substance: leukemia, colon cancer, and
melanoma. (Berger TG et al., 2005, Efferth T, et al., 2002) It has also
shown suppressive effects on following cancer types: breast cancer,
ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, brain cancer, and kidney cancer.
(Efferth T, et al., 2006, Anfosso L, et al., 2006, Paik IH, et al.,
2006, Galal AM, et al., 2002, Lai H, et al., 2005, Lee CH, et al., 2000,
Singh NP, et al., 2001) A similar anti-cancer action was found in DHA
(Singh NP, et al., 2001). It selectively affects cancer cells without
harming normal cells, and contains a wide anti-cancer spectrum. DHA can
be used immediately after the initial cancer diagnosis to prepare the
patient for oncology therapies. It can also be used as a tertiary
preventive measure following surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation
treatments to prevent relapse and metastasis.
level increased and maintained at the elevated level for 24 hours in
mice who were given DHA. Increased phagocytosis started 24 hours after
administration and stayed elevated for 72 hours. It increased the
percentage of phagocytosis of phagocytes and increased phagocytic index.
The elevated phagocytic activity may be a result of the effects of
interferon. It can reduce serum IgG in sensitized animals and increase
the weight of the spleen. It has obvious suppressive effects on humoral
and cellular immunity in mice and can reduce the amount of antibody
producing cells and also suppress delayed allergic reactions, as well as
suppress IL-2 production in mice spleen. These effects explain its usage
in treating systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (Shen M et al., 1983,
Zhang D et al., 1989, Chen H et al., 1988, Qien RS et al., 1981, Zhao KC
et al., 1988)
Studies have found
that DHA is widely dispersed and rapidly absorbed, metabolized, and
excreted. There was no evidence of toxic accumulation after long-term
use. (Chen S et al., 1980, Zhu DY et al., 1980, 1983, Research Group on
Qinghaosu 1982, Ning DX et al., 1987). When used in the recommended
dosage orally, no toxic side effects were reported. (Gordi, T, 2004)
5. Clinical Applications
Malaria: A 100% cure
rate was achieved in large number cases of tertian malaria and
DHA is one of
best treatments for multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum
malaria and is well tolerated by all age groups.
Babesiosis: In our
clinic, the treatment course is approximately 90 days. Most patients see
the babesiosis test turn negative after one course. Some patients
require a second course of treatment.
SLE and lupus
erythematosus discoides: Almost every case experienced remission in
varying degrees. During the beginning of treatment, symptoms may
temporarily worsen then gradually improve. (Zhuang GK et al., 1979)
for cancer patients for primary and tertiary prevention of relapse and
Each capsule contains 40 mg of DHA take one capsule three times a day.
(Total daily dose is 120mg *)
(*For treating malaria, the daily recommended dose is 60 mg.)
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