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Herbs

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Formula List
AI # 3 Capsule
Allicin Capsule
Artemisia Capsule
Artemisia 2 Capsule
(Double Potency)
BM Capsule
Capillaris Combination
Circulation P Capsule
Copmine Formula
Coptis Capsule
Cordyceps Capsule
DH-Artemisinin Capsule
Gall Formula 1
Gineseng and Atractylodes Formula
Glycyrrhizin Capsule
GL2
Hepa Formula 1A
Hepa Formula 2
HerbLipido
HerbSom Capsule
HerbZac Capsule
HH Tablets
HH 2 Capsule
(Double Potency)
Ligustrin Capsule
Milk Thistle Plus
MVM Formula
Olivessence Capsule
Puerarin Capsule
R-5081 Capsule
R-OBG Capsule
Schisandra Plus
Sedin
TGP formula
Yunan Paiyao Capsule
 
Puerarin Capsule
Recommended Daily Dose:
2 Capsules, 3 Times a Day

(Individual Dosage May Vary. Please Your Consult Health Care Professional)


  1. Original Herb:

 

The root of Pueraria thomsanii Benth, or P. lobata Willd. The Chinese name of this herb is Gegen.

 

  1. Traditional Chinese Medicine Description:

 

TCM classifies it as a sweet and pungent herb with a mild property. It is spasmolytic, antipyretic, secretory, and anti-diarrheal. It is also thought to induce the eruption of measles at the early stage.

The herb was used to treat fever, headache, stiffness of back and neck, dry mouth in diarrhea or dysentery, and early-stage measles.

 

  1. Chemical Composition:

 

The herb contains the flavonoids daidzin, daidzein, diadzein-4’, 7-diglucoside, Puerarin-7-xyloside and 4’-6’-O-diacetylpuerarin [1].

 

4.        Pharmacology:

 

A.      Coronary and Cerebral Vasodilatory Effects:

 

The decoction or ethanol extract of Gegen (which contains total flavones, daidzin, and Puerarin) upon being administered to rats intraperitoneally or subcutaneously antagonized acute myocardial ischemia induced by pituitrin [2].  The injection of Puerarin caused a marked increase in the coronary flow and a decrease in vascular resistance. During intravenous injection, the blood flow of the internal carotid and femoral arteries was also increased, though not as markedly as that in the coronary vessels. The inability of reserpine to modify the action of the total flavones and Puerarin on coronary circulation indicates a direct relaxant action on the vascular smooth muscle. Puerarin was more potent than the total flavones. Intravenous injection of Puerarin in anesthetized dogs decreased the heart rate and the total peripheral resistance, slightly decreased the left ventricular work, reduced the myocardial oxygen consumption, and increased the myocardial efficiency.  The cardiac output, however, was not significantly altered. These effects were beneficial to the maintenance of equilibrium between myocardial oxygen demand and supply [3]. IV injection of extract of Gegen in anesthetized dogs with acute myocardial infarction induced by ligation of the anterior descending coronary artery caused a significant decrease in blood pressure, a slowing of the heart beat, and a slight decrease in blood flow in the infarcted area.  At the same time, it caused no significant change in the arterial blood oxygen, but significant increase in the venous blood oxygen at the coronary sinus and infracted area. The oxygen utilization and consumption, as well as lactic acid content, in both the normal and infarcted areas were markedly decreased.  Whereas lactic acid utilization was markedly increased. These results indicate that Puerarin has excellent effects on the metabolism of infarcted myocardium [4].  Injection of total flavones to the internal carotid artery of anesthetized dogs causes a dose-dependent increase in the cerebral blood flow and a decrease in cerebral vascular resistance [5].

 

B.       Hypotensive Effects

 

Pueraria’s total flavones can causes hypertensive dogs and normotensive anesthetized dogs to lower their blood pressure. In hypertensive dogs, the pressure response to norepinephrine and the hypotensive effect of acetylcholine could be attenuated by the ethanol extract of Gegen [5]. It has a direct vasodilatory action, which decreases the peripheral vascular resistance [3,5]. It can also decrease the blood catecholamine level [6] and vascular reactivity [5]. This may be the reason why it can be effectively used for treating migraine headaches.

 

C.       Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation

 

ADP-induced rat platelet aggregation was inhibited to different extents by 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/ml of Puerarin in vitro, and also intravenous injection. At doses of 0.5 – 3.0mg/ml, Puerarin also inhibited (in vitro) aggregation of rabbit and sheep platelets, and those of normal subjects induced by ADP or serotonin. It can also inhibit secretion of serotonin from platelets [7]. This effect is favorable to the prevention and treatment of angina pectoris and myocardial infarction.

 

D.      β-Adrenergic Blocking Effect

 

In various isolated tissues with β-Adrenergic receptors, this herbal extract exhibited different degrees of significant antagonism against the effect of isoproterenol. This fact suggested that it is a wide-spectrum β-blocker. The extract of Gegen at doses as low as 15 mg markedly attenuated the stimulant effect of 5 μg of isoproterenol on the isolated heart. Whereas tenfold the above dose had practically no direct inhibitory effect on normal hearts, nor does it influence the cardiotontic effect of digitalis glycosides. The findings suggest that the herb has selectivity to the β1-receptors. The β2-receptor blocking action was found to be weak because doses up to 150 mg were required in order to antagonize bronchodilation and peripheral vasodilation induced by isoproterenol [8].

 

5.        Pharmacokinetics

 

Orally administered Puerarin was rapidly but incompletely absorbed in rats. IV injection of this substance was found highest in concentration in the kidney, lower in plasma, liver, and spleen, and lowest in the brain. It was minimally destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract, and it was metabolized in the blood, liver, and kidneys.  Also, it can bind to the proteins of liver, kidneys, lungs and plasma. The 24-hour urinary and fecal excretion of the oral dose of Puerarin accounted for 1.85 and 35.7% respectively. The data showed that after administered, it was rapidly distributed and eliminated, with low accumulation [9].

 

6.        Toxicity

 

Oral administration of dried ethanol extract 10,000 to 20,000 mg/kg daily for three days to mice did not result in any toxic effects. Likewise, no toxic effects were exhibited by the total flavones. The LD50 of the dried ethanol extract in mice was 2,100±120 mg/kg. Oral administration of the ethanol extract 2,000 mg/kg daily to mice for two months did not cause pathological changes in the solid organs. Likewise, administration of the ethanol extract to hypertensive dogs 2,000 mg/kg daily for 14 days orally produced no toxic effects either [10]. It is a very safe herbal remedy.

 

7.        Clinical Studies

 

A.      Headache and Migraine

 

Symptomatic improvement was achieved in 35 of 42 migraine cases [10]. In hypertensive patients, it improved the cerebral blood flow, lowered the vascular resistance, and shortened the influx time in about 50% of the cases [2,10, 11].

 

B.       Hypertension

 

The total flavones (100 mg daily in two doses) were given for a course of 2-8 weeks to 222 cases of hypertension with pain and stiffness of the neck. 78-90% of the cases reported relief of neck symptoms. In 90% of the cases remedial effects appeared after one week of administration, persisting for one to two weeks.  In some patients there were no relapses during a period of 3 to 9 months after discontinuation of therapy. The treatment alleviated symptoms of headache, dizziness, tinnitus, and numbness of extremities but did not significantly lower the blood pressure [2,10].

 

C.       Coronary Disease and Angina Pectoris

 

191 cases of coronary disease and angina pectoris were treated with Gegen tablet (each tablet contains 10 mg of total flavones), 3-4 tablets three times a day. This treatment was  effective in relief of anginal pain and in improving ECG [2,10,12]. Another group of 110 cases of coronary disease were treated with a compound of extract of Puerarin and Crataegi, 90% of them had relief of anginal pain and 43% had marked improvement [13].

 

D.      Sudden Deafness at Early Stage

 

The tablets of the ethanol extract of Gegen (each equivalent to 1.5 grams of crude herb) were used at dose of 1-2 tablets three times a day together with injection of the total flavones 100 mg IM twice daily (and in some cases also supplemented with vitamin B complex) in order to treat 176 cases for a course of one to two months, hearing improvement in 79.5% of the cases [2,10, 14].

 

References:

 

[1] Fang QC et al., Chinese Medical Journal 1974 (5):271

[2] Institute of Materia Medica of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Medical Research Communications 1972 (2):14

[3] Fan LL et al., Chinese Medical Journal 1975 (10):724

[4] Zhou YP et al., Chinese Medical Journal 1977 (9):550

[5] Zeng GY et al., Chinese Medical Journal 1974 (5):265

[6] Zeng GY et al., Chinese Medical Journal 1979 (8):479

[7] Pharmacology Department, Institute of Materia Medica of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Research Information on Cardiovascular Diseases 1979 (12):1

[8] Lu XR et al., Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica 1980 15(4):218

[9] Zhu XY  et al., Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica 1979 14(6):349

[10] Institute of Materia Medica of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs Communications 1975 (2):34

[11] Hypertension Research Unit, Fuwai Hospital  of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Diseases 1972 (1):29

[12] Beijing Railways Hospital et al., Proceedings of the Symposium of Stage-IV Research Summary of Beijing Distract Coordinating Research Group on Coronary Diseases 1972 (2):36

[13] Anshan No.1 Pharmaceutical Factory, Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs Communications 1978 (2):20

[14] Auditus Department, Beijing Institute of Otorhinoloryngology,  Chinese Medical Journal 1973 (10):591