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Herbs

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Formula List
AI # 3 Capsule
Allicin Capsule
Artemisia Capsule
Artemisia 2 Capsule
(Double Potency)
BM Capsule
Capillaris Combination
Circulation P Capsule
Copmine Formula
Coptis Capsule
Cordyceps Capsule
DH-Artemisinin Capsule
Gall Formula 1
Gineseng and Atractylodes Formula
Glycyrrhizin Capsule
GL2
Hepa Formula 1A
Hepa Formula 2
HerbLipido
HerbSom Capsule
HerbZac Capsule
HH Tablets
HH 2 Capsule
(Double Potency)
Ligustrin Capsule
Milk Thistle Plus
MVM Formula
Olivessence Capsule
Puerarin Capsule
R-5081 Capsule
R-OBG Capsule
Schisandra Plus
Sedin
TGP formula
Yunan Paiyao Capsule
 
Milk Thistle (Silymarin) Plus Capsule
Recommended Daily Dose:
One Capsule, 3 Times a Day

(Individual Dosage May Vary. Please Your Consult Health Care Professional)


Original Herb:

The botanical name of the main herb in this formula is Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Milk thistle is the common name and its Chinese name is Shui Fei Ji. The part of the plant used is the seed. The other supportive herbs in this capsule are: Artemisiae Capillaris Thunb and Panax notoginseng.

Chemical Composition of the Herbs:

The active ingredient used for treating liver disorders is silymarin and it is extracted from the seed of the plant. Silymarin is the most widely studied active ingredient, which is responsible for the main pharmacological effects of Milk thistle, especially its liver protective actions.[1]  Besides Silymarin, there are also other chemicals in the seeds: silybin, silydiamin, silychkristin, dehydrosilybin, and silybinomer. These chemicals have also been found to have beneficial effects on the liver.

The main ingredient of Panax notoginseng is arasaponin. Artemisiae Capillaris Thunb’s active ingredients are beta-pinene, capillin, capillone, and capillene, etc. These all possess powerful liver protective and anti-fibrosis effects. Together, they can play an important role in healing liver cell inflammation, necrosis, and prevent ongoing liver fibrosis.[2]      

Phytopharmacology:

Milk thistle and its active bioflavonoid principle, silymarin, have been extensively studied and found to have liver protective and antioxidant actions. It is effective in healing liver injury and fatty liver degeneration caused by toxins such as carbon tetrachloride, galactosamine, and ethionine.[3,4] The protective actions last for over 30 hours when take orally as it promotes the regeneration of injured liver cells and increases glycogenesis and nucleic acid metabolism. Its other actions include scavenging free radicals, increasing intracellular concentration of glutathione, increasing the proliferation of Kupffer cells, stabilizing liver cell membrane and regulating its permeability. Silymarin has shown both prophylactic and curative activities against the toxin of the death cap mushroom (Amanita phalloides).[5] It interrupts the enterohepatic re-circulation of amanitins, inhibits the binding of alpha-amanitin to the membrane of liver cells, competes with amatoxin for trans-membrane transport and inhibits the penetration of amanitin into the liver cells.[6,7] Oral administration of silymarin protects against iron-induced liver toxicity in rats via its anti-oxidant mechanism. [8] It also possesses anti-fibrosis effects, while taken orally at a dose of 50mg/kg, ameliorated hepatic collagen accumulation in the early and advanced biliary fibrosis secondary to bile duct obliteration in rats. [9] After administration of this substance, nuclear RNA synthesis was increased and explains the acceleration of liver cell regeneration observed clinically. [10] In women, it helps to prevent liver histological changes during pregnancy and in those taking oral contraceptives.[11]

In animal experimentation with sheep, silymarin exhibited favorable effects in preventing larvae-induced ruminant hepatotoxicosis.[12] Dehmlov et al[13] demonstrated that this liver protective effect is derived from selective inhibition of leukotriene formation by Kupffer cells of the liver. The liver protective effects of silymarin are based on its antioxidant action, which scavenge free radicals and increase the intracellular concentration of glutathione. The regulatory action on the cellular membrane permeability can increase the stability of the liver cells. It also increases the synthesis of ribosomal RNA and proteins and thereby cellular regeneration.[14]

Many other physiological effects of this substance are also very useful for treating hepatitis and related liver diseases.
1. It can increase the secretion of bile into the duodenum, and exert a gastro-protective effect to prevent ischemic mucosal injury.[15]
2. Antioxidant actions have been discussed in above section, which is the mechanism of liver protection.
3. Enhance the detoxification functions of the liver, taking Silymarin orally can increase the activity of the cytochrome P-450.[16]
4. It wields anti-cholestatic action by countering the reduction in bile salt output and bile flow.[17]
5. It can reduce the serum cholesterol concentration and its effects were similar to to hypocholesterolaemic drug probucol.[18]
6. It is an anti-inflammatory agent.
7.The herb can inhibit peroxidation and protect brain tissue against X-irradiation.
8. It has also been found that the herb has Ca2+ channel-blocking activity.  

In summary, this herb and its active ingredient Silymarin has liver-protective, tropho-restorative, antioxidant, and bile secretary effects. A. capillaries has cholagogic and liver protective effects and has been used for thousands of years in TCM for treating liver and gall bladder problems. P notoginseng has been shown to improve blood circulation, increase blood supply to the heart, decrease inflammation activity, lower liver enzyme levels and decrease blood lipids effects. The combination of milk thistle and P capillaries can help to hold or reverse the progression of liver fibrosis.  

 

Clinical Usage

Milk thistle has been used in China and Germany for hundreds of years for the treatment of jaundice, liver and biliary derangements, hepatitis and hemorrhoids. It has also been used for breaking or expelling gallstones. [19,20] The following clinical uses have been supported by trials: non-alcoholic and alcoholic liver damages, abnormal liver functions, fat deposit in the liver, chemical or drug induced liver damages, toxic mushroom intoxication, inflammation of the liver, and gall bladder disorders. According to its pharmacology, it may also be used for liver problems associated with pregnancy, oral contraceptive use or environmental pollution, prevention of gall- stone formation, and facilitating bile secretion.  

 

References:

[1] Ji, Yuebing, Pharmacological Action and Application of Available Composition of TCM, Helongjian Science and Tachnology Press, 1994, p. 424

[2] Ji, Yuebing, Pharmacological Action and Application of Available Composition of TCM, Helongjian Science and Tachnology Press, 1994, p. 513, p. 105

[3] Hikino H, et al., Planta Med, 1984, 50(3):248-250

[4] Reiter m. et al., Arzneim Forsch 1985, 35(1a):408-414

[5] Choppin J. et al., Arzneim Forsch 1978, 28(1):636-641

[6] Floersheiim GL et al., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1978, 46:455-462

[7] Kronche KD et al., J Biol Chem, 1986, 261(27):12562-12567

[8] Pietrangelo A et al., Gestroenterol 1995, 109(6):1941-1949

[9] Boigk G et al., Hepatology 1997, 26(3):643-649

[10] Sonnenbichler J. et al., Physiol Chem 1984, 365(5):555-566

[11] martines G. et al., Arch Sci Med 1979, 136(3):443-454

[12] Thamsborg, S.M. et al., Vet. Human Toxicol., 35, 89, 1996

[13] Dehmlov, C. et al., Hepatology, 23, 749, 1996

[14] Valenzuel A, et al., Biol Res 1994, 27 (2):105-112

[15] Alarcon, de La Lastra A.C. et al., Planta Med., 61, 116, 1995

[16] Leber HW et al., Arzneim Forsch 1976, 26(8):1603-1605

[17] Shukla B. et al., Planta Med 1991, 57(1):29-33

[18] Krecman V. et al., Planta Med 1998, 64:138-142 

[19] Madaus, G. Lehrbuch et al., Hildesheim, 1976, pp830-836

[20] Grieve M. Amodern herbal, vol.2. Dover Puvlicatiions, New York, 1971, p  797.