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Herbs

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Formula List
AI # 3 Capsule
Allicin Capsule
Artemisia Capsule
Artemisia 2 Capsule
(Double Potency)
BM Capsule
Capillaris Combination
Circulation P Capsule
Copmine Formula
Coptis Capsule
Cordyceps Capsule
DH-Artemisinin Capsule
Gall Formula 1
Gineseng and Atractylodes Formula
Glycyrrhizin Capsule
GL2
Hepa Formula 1A
Hepa Formula 2
HerbLipido
HerbSom Capsule
HerbZac Capsule
HH Tablets
HH 2 Capsule
(Double Potency)
Ligustrin Capsule
Milk Thistle Plus
MVM Formula
Olivessence Capsule
Puerarin Capsule
R-5081 Capsule
R-OBG Capsule
Schisandra Plus
Sedin
TGP formula
Yunan Paiyao Capsule
 
Schisandra Plus Capsule
Recommended Daily Dose:
1 Capsule, 3 Times a Day

(Individual Dosage May Vary. Please Your Consult Health Care Professional)


Herbal Constituents

The dried ripe fruit of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill or S. sphenanthera, along with Artemisiae capillaris Thunb and Panax notoginseng, form the constituents of Schisandra Plus Capsule.

 

Applications in Traditional Chinese Medicine

In TCM pharmacognostics, the Chinese name for schisandra, the main herb, is wuweizi. It is nontoxic with a sweet-sour taste and a “warm” property. It is used as an astringent and is also kidney-tonifying and tranquilizing. It has been used mainly to treat asthmatic cough, dry mouth, spontaneous or night sweating, nocturnal emission, chronic diarrhea and dysentery, insomnia, amnesia and palpitation.

 

Chemical Components

Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill contains a volatile oil consisting mainly of citral and deoxyschizandrin, g-schizandrin, wuweizisu C and wuweizi ester A, B. The fruit of S. chinensis contains schizandrin, deoxyschizandrin, g-schizandrin, pseudo-g-schizandrin and schizandrol. Seven pharmacologically active compounds were isolated from the ethanol extract of the herb, five of which were identified as schizandrins A, B and C, and schizandrols A and B. Four new compounds of lignans—schizandrin C, schizandrol B, schizandrol A and wuweizi ester B—were also isolated.1 Five lignans—wuweizi esters A, B, C, D and E—and deoxyschizandrin were isolated from the fruit of S. sphenanthera. 2

 

The main ingredient of Panax notoginseng is arasaponin. Artemisiae capillaris Thunb’s active ingredients are beta-pinene, capillin, capillone and capillene.

 

Phytopharmacology

A. Liver-Protective Actions 
The kernel of S. chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and S. sphenanthera markedly decreased the elevated ALT (SGPT) of rabbits, rats and mice intoxicated by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).3-5 Seven lignan compounds isolated from the ethanol extract of the kernel lowered the transaminase (ALT and AST) activity; among the compounds, wuweizi ester B, schizandrol B and schizandrin C had the strongest action.1, 6

 

S. sphenanthera fruit has a similar action.7 Wuweizi esters A, B, C and D all can reduce the level of transaminase.2 Schizandrin B and wuweizi esters A of S. sphenanthera fruit inhibited liver damage caused by CCl4, or thioacetamide.8,9

 

In histochemical studies of CCl4 liver intoxication, fatty degeneration and mitochondrial changes were milder and the glycogen content richer in the treated group as compared to the control. Electron microscopy also showed milder changes in the hepatocellular endoplasmic reticula and mitochondria in the treatment group.5,10 Schisandra was able to mitigate the pathological changes induced by CCl4 in mice, such as the appearance of central necrosis of liver lobules and decrease of basophilic substances, mitochondria, RNA, glycogen, acid phosphatase, ATPase, succinic acid dehydrogenase and monoamine oxidase, as well as the presence of lipid globules.

 

It is believed that the protective action of the herb against CCl4-induced liver damage is probably realized through the promotion of liver-cell protein anabolism, thereby facilitating the recovery of mitochondria.11 The water, protein, RNA and total lipid contents per gram of liver in the normal mouse were not significantly altered by schizandrin B, but their amounts in the whole liver were markedly increased. Schizandrin B could markedly promote regeneration, protein anabolism and nucleic acid synthesis of the partially sectioned liver. Liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 was greatly increased, suggesting the presence of enzyme induction. Therefore, the enlargement of the liver elicited by schizandrin B was not considered a pathological phenomenon, but was attributed to the hypertrophy of liver cells accompanying enzyme induction.12

 

B. Central Nervous System Action Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill enhanced the spinal reflex and shortened its latent period.13 The herb acted directly on the nervous system and not on the skin receptor or muscle. Studies on the conditioned reflex proved that it improves differentiation and balance between the excitatory and inhibitory control of the cerebral cortex. High dosage of the herb strengthened the positive conditioned reflexes.14 It also normalizes the EEG waves of fatigued rabbits15 and significantly prolonged the swimming time of rats.16

 

This herb can enhance human intellectual activity to increase work efficiency. Schizandrin at 5-10 mg improves certain activities requiring concentration, fine coordination, sensitivity and endurance, as demonstrated in healthy young male adults in the following experiments: insertion of thread into needle within 5 minutes; error rate in telegraphic reception and transmission; and long-distance running.16 The herb improved vision, enlarged the visual field,17 improved hearing18 and increased the discriminating ability of skin receptors.13 Its action mechanism is attributed to improvement of the function of the central analyzer in the central nervous system.

 

C. Other Pharmacological Actions

This herb has adaptogen-like action, increasing the resistance of the body against nonspecific stimuli.19 Its decoction significantly stimulated respiration in normal and anesthetized rabbits and dogs, causing deep and rapid breathing.20 Respiration could also be stimulated by 5-10 mg of schizandrin.13 The herb induced vasodilation in animals21 and in human fingers.16 Hypotension was induced in dogs, cats and rabbits by the intravenous injection of either the aqueous or alcohol extract.20,22 There were reports claiming that the herb exerted only a very weak hypotensive action, and that it significantly increased blood pressure in circulatory failure.23 Hence, it seems to have a regulatory effect on blood pressure.

 

The herb promoted the synthesis of glycogen and glycogenolysis, and enhanced phosphorylation of fructose and glucose in the brain, liver and muscles.24,25 The glucose tolerance test in rabbits showed that the herb was able to improve the utilization of glucose,26 to regulate gastric secretion and promote bile secretion in dogs with biliary fistulae.13

 

D. Pharmacological Actions of the Other Two Herbs:

A. capillaries has cholagogic (facilitating bile secretion) and liver-protective effects and has been used for thousands of years in TCM for liver and gall bladder problems. P notoginseng improves blood circulation, increases blood supply to the heart, reduces inflammation, and lowers liver enzyme levels and blood lipids. Both herbs have potent liver-protective and anti-fibrosis effects. Together they can play an important role to reduce liver-cell inflammation and necrosis, and prevent liver fibrosis.27

 

Toxicity

The toxicity of wuweizi is low; oral administration of 5 g/kg to mice did not result in death.23 The ethanol extract given to mice by mouth at the dose of 0.6 or 1.2 g/kg for 10 days resulted in only mild toxic effects, such as decrease in activity.28

 

Schizandrin B was less toxic; a single oral dose of 2 g/kg to 10 rats was not fatal. Oral dosing of 200 mg/kg for 30 days caused no significant effect on growth, hemoglobin or histology of the major organs of mice. Schizandrin B given orally to dogs at 10 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks did not alter appetite, body weight, blood counts, or liver and kidney functions.8

 

Clinical Studies in China

The following results of clinical studies done in China are provided here for informational and educational purposes only.

A. Viral Hepatitis and Drug-Induced Liver Damage

Wuweizi has been extensively used for treating acute and chronic viral hepatitis and drug-induced liver damage in China. More than 5000 reported cases of various types of hepatitis have been treated with its preparations; the short-term effect for lowering ALT (SGPT) was satisfactory; the total effective rate was 84-97.9%; ALT was normalized in about 75% of the treated cases. The onset of action was about 20 days.28 Out of 86 cases with elevated ALT due to medications, 83 cases had normal ALT after 1-4 weeks of treatment with the herb. Enzyme activity decreased even without discontinuing liver-toxic drugs.29

S. sphenanthera fruit had a similar effect on ALT.30 Its transaminase-lowering action was shown in hepatitis due to antimony intoxication.31,32 Increased ALT was seen in 82.4% cases using antimony alone, whereas only 12.9% of the cases had increased measurements if S. sphenanthera fruit was used in combination; about 75% of the cases had improved symptoms along with the lowering of ALT. Reduced hepatomegaly (enlarged liver) and splenomegaly (enlarged spleen) were reported.33 ALT tended to rebound when the treatment was discontinued, though subsequent use of the herb usually reduced ALT again.30,34,35

 

B. Neurosis and Psychosis

A 40-100% wuweizi tincture at 2.5 ml twice to thrice daily for a course of two weeks to one month alleviated or relieved insomnia, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, palpitation and nocturnal emission.36-38 Of the 73 cases treated, 43 cases were cured (58.9%), 13 cases (17.8%) were improved, 16 cases9,39 discontinued treatment, and 1 case (1.3%) showed no effect.36. The herb showed good therapeutic effects for patients with hallucination, paranoia and neurosis.13

 

Definite therapeutic effects were obtained by wuweizi in the treatment of mild spastic paralysis in 2-4 days after stroke, as well as in cerebellum ataxia and Parkinsons disease.38 Good effects were also obtained when the herb was used in combination with the seed of Z. jujuba var. inermis and the root tuber of Pseudostellaria heterophylla.37

 

The herb improved vision in patients with various eye diseases, as well as in people working night shifts or in dark places.13

 

Most of the 20 cases of Menieres syndrome were cured after 4-5 doses of wuweizi used together with the seed of Z. jujuba var. inermis, the root of Angelica sinensis and the seeded fruit of Euphoria longan.40

 

Adverse Effects

Schisandra showed no significant toxicity, though when the raw herb was used, heartburn, acid reflux, indigestion, stomachache and decreased appetite occurred in some patients.28 But when used in combination with the herb’s active ingredient, schisandrin, these adverse reactions were lessened.

 

Dosage

Each capsule contains 350 mg of herbal extracts and among them, no less than 15 mg of schizandrin C, 50 mg of arasaponin (active ingredient of Panax notoginseng) and 285 mg extract of Schisandra chinensis and Artemisiae Capillaris Thunb. 

Each bottle contains 90 capsules, enough for one month. Take one capsule three times a day before meals.

 

References

1. Chen YY et al. Scientia Sinica 1976(11):98.

2. Phytochemistry Department, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica 1979;14(12):746.

3. Bronchitis Research Section, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica of the Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine (internal information). 1973 (in Chinese).

4. Ilan DN et al. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1975 (1):45 (in Chinese).

5. Guangzhou Air Force Hospital of the Chinese PLA (internal information). 1975 (in Chinese).

6. Chan YY et al. Acta Chimica Sinica 1976;34(1):45.

7. Shanghai Institute of Chinese Matéria Medica. Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica 1976;8(4):333.

8. Bao TT et al. National Medical Journal of China 1975;55(7):498 (in Chinese).

9. Shanghai Institute of Chinese Materia Medica. Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs Communications 1974(6):45 (in Chinese).

10. Third Peoples Teaching Hospital, Shanghai Second Medical College (in Chinese).

11. Histo-embryology Department, Traditional Chinese Medicine Division of the Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The References of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1976(1):6 (in Chinese).

12. Liu CT et al. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica 1980;15(4):206.

13. Wang BX. Tianjin Medical Journal 1965;7(4):338 (in Chinese).

14. Jia YR et al. Abstracts of the first members meeting of the Chinese Society of Physiology 1956:59 (in Chinese).

15. Rurynowicz JR et al. Journal of Physiology 1962;52(1):122 (in Chinese).

16. Jiangsu College of New Medicine. Encyclopedia of Chinese Materia Medica, Vol. 1. Shanghai Peoples Publishing House, 1977, p. 386 (in Chinese).

17. Zhou EF. Beijing Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1954;3(4):25 (in Chinese).

18. Sorokhtin GN et al.. Materialy k izucheniiu zhenshchenia i limonnika vyup uz 1955;5:745 (in Russian with Chinese abstract).

19. Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Medical References 1972(7):32 (in Chinese).

20. Sun K. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica 1959;7(7):277.

21. Trifonovo IT. Akusher Ginekol 1954;4:19 (in Russian with Chinese abstract).

22. Li GC et al. Abstracts of the 1956 Academic Conference of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Vol. 2, 1956, p. 70 (in Chinese).

23. Wu XR et al. Chinese Medical Journal 1955;41(10):959 (in Chinese).

24. Belonosov IS et al. Biokhimiia 1951;16:542 (in Russian with Chinese abstract).

25. Belonosov IS et al. Chemical Abstracts 1962;55:47818.

26. Karaev AI. Chemical Abstracts 1958;52:206828.

27. Ji YB. Pharmacological Action and Application of Available Composition of TCM. Helongjian Science and Technology Press, 1994, pp. 105, 513 (in Chinese).

28. Yu HQ. Medical Research Communications 1979(9):23 (in Chinese).

29. Internal Medicine Department, 309th Hospital of the Chinese PLA. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1973(9):18 (in Chinese).

30. Nanjing Region Coordinating Research Group for the Prevention and Treatment of Viral Hepatitis. Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine 1976(1):26 (in Chinese).

31. Internal Medicine Department, Nanjing Centre for Schistosomiasis Control. Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs Communications 1977(3):26 (in Chinese).

32. Staff Hospital of Hengzhou Chemical Factory. Zhejiang Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1977(5):6 (in Chinese).

33. Hepatitis Group, Internal Medicine Department of Beijing Railways Hospital. Journal of Beijing Railways Hospital 1975(6):21 (in Chinese).

34. Norman Bethune Hospital (internal information). 1973 (in Chinese).

35. Wang CF et al. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1976(9):45 (in Chinese).

36. He LT. Shanghai Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1956(3):31 (in Chinese).

37. Wang XH. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1958(2):81 (in Chinese).

38. Zatonekaia NV et al. Materialy kizucheniiu zhenshchenia i limonnika vyup uz 1958: 3,209 (in Russian with Chinese abstract).

39. Zakusoo VV. Farmakologiia nervnoi sistemy 1953:174 (in Russian with Chinese abstract).

40. Zhou JF et al. Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology 1960(1):25 (in Chinese).