Hepatitis C
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Articles by
Dr. Zhang
TCM and MCM Theory Related to Common Liver Disease Blood Test Markers

Low Dose Interferon Patient Experiment

Hepatitis A Prevention Reminder

Hepatitis: Causes of Pain in Liver Region 

The Need to Monitor Your Chronic Hepatitis

Liver Enzyme Fluctuation during Allergy Season 

What are the Serum Markers of Hepatitis B and What do They Mean?

Enterogenous Endotoxemia in Chronic Hepatitis–
Part 2

Enterogenous Endotoxemia in Chronic Hepatitis–
Part 1

Chronic Hepatitis and "Blood Activating and Stasis Expelling" (BASE) Therapy -
Part 2

Chronic Hepatitis and "Blood Activating and Stasis Expelling" (BASE) Therapy
Part 1

What Causes Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Cirrhotic Liver Disease

Dietary Support for Cirrhotic Liver Diseases

Ascites - A Complication of De-Compensated Liver Cirrhosis

Liver Cirrhosis - Portal Vein Hypertension Complications

Liver Cirrhosis Overview

PG-IFN and Ribavirin Treatments

Antibiotics and Chronic Liver Diseases

Why is Alcohol Harmful for People with Hepatitis?

Co-infections and Super-infections of Viral Hepatitis

Beware of Medications That Can Cause Liver Damage

Bile Retention and Its Clinical Manifestations (MCM) part 4

Modern Chinese Medicine (MCM) Part 3 
Jaundice and Chronic Viral Hepatitis

Modern Chinese Medicine (MCM) Anti-Liver-Fibrosis Treatments - Part 2

Modern Chinese Medicine (MCM) Anti-Liver-Fibrosis Treatments - Part 1

What is Liver Fibrosis and How is It Different from Cirrhosis?

How does the liver change as we get older?

How is that my LFTs are so good when my viral load is seemly so high?

Comprehensive Care for Chronic Viral Hepatitis

What can Cause Liver Inflammation?  

What Are the Major Functions that the Liver Carries?


What are the Serum Markers of Hepatitis B and What do They Mean?

The main serum markers of hepatitis B are Hepatitis B Virus surface antigen (HBsAg), HBV surface antibody (HBsAb), HBV e antigen (HBeAg), HBV e antibody (HBeAb), and HBV c antibody (HBcAb). (They are commonly referred to as the two and a half pairs and are usually used to identify HBV infections.)  The first two pair of markers are obvious but because HBV c antigen is quickly degenerated in the serum, it cannot be tested in the serum.  If any one of these markers test positive, it means that the person has had a HBV infection. If HBsAg, HBeAg, and
HBcAb test positive, it means that the HBV is replicating actively and the patient is infectious.

Individually, these markers each have their own significance. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) is the surface protein of HBV. The HBsAg itself is not an infectious agent but its existence shows that there is HBV in the body of the patient. (It has the same meaning as having detectable HBV DNA in the blood.) HBsAg can exist in blood, saliva, breast milk, sweat, tears, nasal secretions, semen, and vaginal secretions. It becomes positive in the serum within 2 to 6 months of the initial HBV infection and usually two to eight weeks before ALT and AST elevation. In acute HBV infections, it can turn negative in the early stage of the disease course. In chronic hepatitis B patients, this marker can be persistently positive.     
The HBV surface antibody (HBsAb) is the product of the body’s immune reaction to the HBV infection. It is an immune globulin secreted by B lymph cells that can combine with the HBsAg to neutralize it. Along with other immune reactions, the HbsAb protective antibody can eradicate the invading HBV from the body. Either an HBV infection or HBV vaccination can cause the HBsAb marker to be positive. This antibody can exist in the blood for a long time, gradually decreasing with age. If the HBV infection happened during the infancy period, it is likely to become chronic since the infant is unable produce this antibody at that time.
The HBV e antigen (HBeAg) comes from the core of the HBV and is a portion of the core. When the core of the HBV degrades in the serum, this antigen is created and can be detected. Because HBcAg will be totally degraded in the serum, it is not detectable in the serum. Thus, when the HBeAg marker becomes positive, it is equivalent to a positive HbcAg marker and shows that the Hepatitis B virus is replicating actively and the patient is infectious.
The HBV e antibody (HBeAb) is the body’s immune reaction to the HBeAg and like HbsAb, it can combine with the HbeAg. It usually appears after the HBeAg turns to negative, which also means that the HBV replication activities have decreased and the patient is less infectious or not infectious at all.

This overview of HBV serum markers gives us a dynamic view of the HBV infection and we can use them to evaluate the HBV replication and the infectious level of the patient.


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About HCV
Causes and Transmission

Diagnostic Tests
Viral Load

Viral Genotyping

Major Signs
Liver Inflammation

Peripheral Signs and Symptoms
Bile Retention
Joint Pains and Skin Rashes
Blood Sugar Instability
Portal Vein Hypertension

Important Liver Function Test Markers
PT (Prothrombin Time)
Liver Biopsy
Inflammation Grade
Fibrosis Stage
Interferon Based Treatment
Ideal Candidate
Possible Side-effects
Liver Support with TCM
Liver Enzymes
Serum Albumin
Blood Clotting Factors
Bile metabolism
Dietary Considerations
Essential Fats




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