Hepatitis C
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Articles by
Dr. Zhang
TCM and MCM Theory Related to Common Liver Disease Blood Test Markers

Low Dose Interferon Patient Experiment

Hepatitis A Prevention Reminder

Hepatitis: Causes of Pain in Liver Region 

The Need to Monitor Your Chronic Hepatitis

Liver Enzyme Fluctuation during Allergy Season 

What are the Serum Markers of Hepatitis B and What do They Mean?

Enterogenous Endotoxemia in Chronic Hepatitis–
Part 2

Enterogenous Endotoxemia in Chronic Hepatitis–
Part 1

Chronic Hepatitis and "Blood Activating and Stasis Expelling" (BASE) Therapy -
Part 2

Chronic Hepatitis and "Blood Activating and Stasis Expelling" (BASE) Therapy
Part 1

What Causes Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Cirrhotic Liver Disease

Dietary Support for Cirrhotic Liver Diseases

Ascites - A Complication of De-Compensated Liver Cirrhosis

Liver Cirrhosis - Portal Vein Hypertension Complications

Liver Cirrhosis Overview

PG-IFN and Ribavirin Treatments

Antibiotics and Chronic Liver Diseases

Why is Alcohol Harmful for People with Hepatitis?

Co-infections and Super-infections of Viral Hepatitis

Beware of Medications That Can Cause Liver Damage

Bile Retention and Its Clinical Manifestations (MCM) part 4

Modern Chinese Medicine (MCM) Part 3 
Jaundice and Chronic Viral Hepatitis

Modern Chinese Medicine (MCM) Anti-Liver-Fibrosis Treatments - Part 2

Modern Chinese Medicine (MCM) Anti-Liver-Fibrosis Treatments - Part 1

What is Liver Fibrosis and How is It Different from Cirrhosis?

How does the liver change as we get older?

How is that my LFTs are so good when my viral load is seemly so high?

Comprehensive Care for Chronic Viral Hepatitis

What can Cause Liver Inflammation?  

What Are the Major Functions that the Liver Carries?


Peripheral Signs and Symptoms
Bile Retention

Bile retention is not an independent disease, but it is an important symptom that needs to be treated. Otherwise, it can become a promoting factor in liver  fibrosis. When bile retention is usually related to the following symptoms:
  1. Jaundice is the first symptom of bile retention. When serum bilirubin increases and secretion of urine bilirubin imbalance, jaundice start to show up. The degree of jaundice can be described from golden yellow, yellowish green, dark brown to deep dark green. This degree of  change is related to the advancement of the disease. When the urine turns to be dark brown and at the same time, stool becomes pale and sometimes clay color.
  2. Itchy skin and rashes, usually starts on the sole and palm and gradually spreads to the whole body. The itching sensation can be very severe and persistent, which can also affect sleep. The severity of the itch is related to the elevation of the level of bile acid in the serum. With the improvement of liver function after treatment, the itching will also be reduced or eliminated completely.
  3. Fat absorption deterioration: because much less bile acid secrets into the intestine, fat digestion is affected. Bile acid is the major chemical in the digestion and absorption of fat nutrients. It plays a major role in the emulsification of large fat molecules from foods into smaller molecules for absorption. Therefore, bile retention will cause inadequate fat absorption, which can also cause fatty diarrhea. At the same time, absorption of vitamins such as vitamin A, K, D, E, which are only dissolved in fat, will be compromised. Long-term deficiency of these vitamins can cause night-blindness, dry cornea and skin, bleeding and osteoporosis.
  4. High cholesterol, which can cause cardiovascular problems. On the face, these will be xanthomas around the eyes.

Although the above listed symptoms could happen in bile retention, the most common and often seen symptoms are jaundice, skin itch and urine and stool color changes. Only in long-term chronic bile retention, with progressive deepening jaundice will fatty diarrhea, osteoporosis, and xanthoma appear.

Some blood tests can also indicate bile retention are:

  1. Serum's total and direct bilirubin elevation.
  2. Serum cholesterol level increase.
  3. GGT, ALP, increase, especially when levels of these enzymes rise above three times the normal range.



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About HCV
Causes and Transmission

Diagnostic Tests
Viral Load

Viral Genotyping

Major Signs
Liver Inflammation

Peripheral Signs and Symptoms
Bile Retention
Joint Pains and Skin Rashes
Blood Sugar Instability
Portal Vein Hypertension

Important Liver Function Test Markers
PT (Prothrombin Time)
Liver Biopsy
Inflammation Grade
Fibrosis Stage
Interferon Based Treatment
Ideal Candidate
Possible Side-effects
Liver Support with TCM
Liver Enzymes
Serum Albumin
Blood Clotting Factors
Bile metabolism
Dietary Considerations
Essential Fats




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