Hepatitis C
Return To SinoMed Main
Information presented on this website is for educational purposes only.
Materials presented have not been evaluated by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration and are not meant as a replacement or substitute for professional medical diagnosis and treatment. Visitors are advised to seek professional medical care for any any disease or illness.



Articles by
Dr. Zhang
TCM and MCM Theory Related to Common Liver Disease Blood Test Markers

Low Dose Interferon Patient Experiment

Hepatitis A Prevention Reminder

Hepatitis: Causes of Pain in Liver Region 

The Need to Monitor Your Chronic Hepatitis

Liver Enzyme Fluctuation during Allergy Season 

What are the Serum Markers of Hepatitis B and What do They Mean?

Enterogenous Endotoxemia in Chronic Hepatitis–
Part 2

Enterogenous Endotoxemia in Chronic Hepatitis–
Part 1

Chronic Hepatitis and "Blood Activating and Stasis Expelling" (BASE) Therapy -
Part 2

Chronic Hepatitis and "Blood Activating and Stasis Expelling" (BASE) Therapy
Part 1

What Causes Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Cirrhotic Liver Disease

Dietary Support for Cirrhotic Liver Diseases

Ascites - A Complication of De-Compensated Liver Cirrhosis

Liver Cirrhosis - Portal Vein Hypertension Complications

Liver Cirrhosis Overview

PG-IFN and Ribavirin Treatments

Antibiotics and Chronic Liver Diseases

Why is Alcohol Harmful for People with Hepatitis?

Co-infections and Super-infections of Viral Hepatitis

Beware of Medications That Can Cause Liver Damage

Bile Retention and Its Clinical Manifestations (MCM) part 4

Modern Chinese Medicine (MCM) Part 3 
Jaundice and Chronic Viral Hepatitis

Modern Chinese Medicine (MCM) Anti-Liver-Fibrosis Treatments - Part 2

Modern Chinese Medicine (MCM) Anti-Liver-Fibrosis Treatments - Part 1

What is Liver Fibrosis and How is It Different from Cirrhosis?

How does the liver change as we get older?

How is that my LFTs are so good when my viral load is seemly so high?

Comprehensive Care for Chronic Viral Hepatitis

What can Cause Liver Inflammation?  

What Are the Major Functions that the Liver Carries?


Major Signs

Liver fibrosis is not an independent disease but rather a histological change caused by liver inflammation. Liver damage causes liver stellate cells to become overactive and triggers increase of extra cellular matrix (ECM) synthesis. When above normal amounts of collagen fiber deposits in the extra-cellular spaces of the liver cells, this causes liver cells to lose blood infusion and promotes hardening.

Chronic viral hepatitis B and C are the most common causes of liver fibrosis. During the chronic hepatitis course, fibrosis is a part of the inflammation activities. In the fibrosis stage, there is no lobular regeneration and this distinguishes it from cirrhosis. When fibrosis advances to cause separations (or bridging) between the portal areas, the center vein, and the formation of pseudo-lobule, fibrosis enters the cirrhosis.

Histological (biopsy) diagnosis classifies the severity of fibrosis into five general stages.  S-0 to S-4. Stage S-0 denotes no distinguishable fibrosis activity. S4 is considered cirrhosis.

In between, S1 is a mild fibrosis seen at the portal area. S2 is a moderate stage of fibrosis, between portal areas, but without the destruction of the liver lobular structure. S3 is severe fibrosis.  At this stage, there is fibrostic bridging between portal areas and center veins. At S4, in addition to S3's changes, there are pseudo-lobules formed. S4 is the cirrhosis stage and approximately 15 to 20% of HCV patients may progress to stage 4.

Liver fibrosis is the net result of the imbalance between the collagen fiber synthesis and decomposition. When fiber synthesis is very active and the decomposition process is suppressed, fibrosis will progress. Vise versa, fibrosis can be reversed if the causal factor, liver inflammation, can be controlled. When fibers form at the early stage, it can be decomposed with water or weak acid. These are soluble fibers. Older fibers deposited for long time, becomes thicker and harder. These cannot be decomposed by water or weak acids and only collagen enzymes can decompose them.  With anti-fibrosis treatment, there it is possible to enhance the activities of collagen enzymes and to promote the decomposition of the fibers, reducing ECM.


Return Home
About HCV
Causes and Transmission

Diagnostic Tests
Viral Load

Viral Genotyping

Major Signs
Liver Inflammation

Peripheral Signs and Symptoms
Bile Retention
Joint Pains and Skin Rashes
Blood Sugar Instability
Portal Vein Hypertension

Important Liver Function Test Markers
PT (Prothrombin Time)
Liver Biopsy
Inflammation Grade
Fibrosis Stage
Interferon Based Treatment
Ideal Candidate
Possible Side-effects
Liver Support with TCM
Liver Enzymes
Serum Albumin
Blood Clotting Factors
Bile metabolism
Dietary Considerations
Essential Fats




Medical Information Sources:


Contact the Webmaster

Copyright © 2005 Sinomed Research Institute®